Over the past two decades, technological advances and economic liberalization have resulted in a level of economic interdependence between states unmatched in history. As global trade has increased, so have the incentives and opportunities for policymakers to use these market forces to advance their interests. Often described as halfway between words and war, economic sanctions are used to combat threats to global peace and security, from narco-trafficking to terrorism to nuclear proliferation.

Yet despite the growing use of sanctions, understanding gaps exist between the authors of sanctions, the agencies and private entities tasked with interpreting and executing them, and the academics, journalists, and non-governmental organizations who gauge their impact and effectiveness.

CESAR’s core mission is to bridge these divides by fostering a balanced and comprehensive discussion on the creation, implementation, impact, and efficacy of economic sanctions.